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Victoria Cross:


Private Patrick Bugden VC, 31st Bn. Service 3774, Aged 20,  Australian Infantry, Australian Infantry Force, Plot VIII. C. 5. He was killed in action on 28th September 1918., Son of Thomas and Annie Bugden, of "Hotel Wells," Tweed Heads, New South Wales. Born at Gundurimba, New South Wales.

Citation: An extract from "The London Gazette," No. 30400, dated 26th Nov., 1917, records the following:-"For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when on two occasions our advance was temporarily held up by strongly defended "pill-boxes". Pte. Bugden, in the face of devastating fire from machine guns, gallantly led small parties to attack these strong points and, successfully silencing the machine guns with bombs, captured the garrison at the point of the bayonet. On another occasion, when a Corporal, who had become detached from his company, had been captured and was being taken to the rear by the enemy, Pte. Bugden, single-handed, rushed to the rescue of his comrade, shot one enemy and bayoneted the remaining two, thus releasing the Corporal. On five occasions he rescued wounded men under intense shell and machine gun fire, showing an utter contempt and disregard for danger. Always foremost in volunteering for any dangerous mission, it was during the execution of one of these missions that this gallant soldier was killed."



Hooge Crater Cemetery is 4 Kms east of Ieper town centre on the Meenseweg (N8), connecting Ieper to Menen. From Ieper town centre the Meenseweg is located via Torhoutstraat and right onto Basculestraat. Basculestraat ends at a main crossroads, directly over which begins the Meenseweg. The cemetery itself is located 3.5 Kms along the Meenseweg on the right hand side of the road.


Hooge Chateau and its stables were the scene of very fierce fighting throughout the First World War. On 31 October 1914, the staff of the 1st and 2nd Divisions were wiped out when the chateau was shelled; from 24 May to 3 June 1915, the chateau was defended against German attacks and in July 1915, the crater was made by a mine sprung by the 3rd Division. On 30 July, the Germans took the chateau, and on 9 August, it and the crater were regained by the 6th Division. The Germans retook Hooge on 6 June 1916 and on 31 July 1917, the 8th Division advanced 1.6 Kms beyond it. It was lost for the last time in April 1918, but regained by the 9th (Scottish) and 29th Divisions on 28 September.

Hooge Crater Cemetery was begun by the 7th Division Burial Officer early in October 1917. It contained originally 76 graves, in Rows A to D of Plot I, but was greatly increased after the Armistice when graves were brought in from the battlefields of Zillebeke, Zantvoorde and Gheluvelt and the following smaller cemeteries:-

BASS WOOD CEMETERIES No.1 and No.2, ZILLEBEKE, on the East side of the Bassevillebeek, 1 Km South of Herenthage Chateau. They contained the graves of 48 soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in December, 1917-March, 1918.
KOELENBERG GERMAN CEMETERIES, GHELUWE, close together on the South side of the Menin Road, in which were buried ten soldiers from the United Kingdom.
K.O.S.B. CEMETERY, GHELUWE, on the Menin Road, 1 Km West of Gheluwe. Here were buried, after the capture of Gheluwe by the 34th Division, in October, 1918, 18 soldiers from the United Kingdom, of whom ten belonged to the 1st/5th K.O.S.B.
LA CHAPELLE FARM, ZILLEBEKE, between Chester Farm and Blauwepoort Farm, where 17 soldiers from the United Kingdom were buried in February and March, 1915.
MENIN ROAD PILLBOX CEMETERY, ZILLEBEKE, between Herenthage Chateau and Gheluvelt, where 20 soldiers from the United Kingdom were buried in October, 1917.

NIEUWE KRUISEECKE CABARET CEMETERY, GHELUVELT, on the South side of the Menin Road, where 21 soldiers from the United Kingdom and one from Canada were buried in October, 1918.
PILLBOX CEMETERY, ZONNEBEKE, 500 metres North-East of Westhoek, which was used in October, 1917; there were buried in it 34 soldiers from Australia, 26 from the United Kingdom, two from Canada and one of the British West Indies Regiment.
SANCTUARY WOOD OLD BRITISH CEMETERY, ZILLEBEKE, within the wood and North-East of the present cemetery; there were buried in it, in 1915-1917, 50 soldiers from the United Kingdom (of whom 30 were unidentified) and four from Canada.

TOWER HAMLETS CEMETERY, GHELUVELT, between Gheluvelt and Bass Wood, on the West side of a row of "pillboxes" called Tower Hamlets; it contained the graves of 36 soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in the winter of 1917-1918.
WESTHOEK RIDGE SMALL CEMETERY, ZONNEBEKE, in Westhoek village, "near the Area Commandant's pillbox and the A.D.S."; it was used in the autumn of 1917, and it contained the graves of 16 soldiers from Australia and six from the United Kingdom.

There are now 5,923 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in this cemetery. 3,579 of the burials are unidentified, but special memorials record the names of a number of casualties either known or believed to be buried among them, or whose graves in other cemeteries were destroyed by shell fire.

The cemetery was designed by  Sir Edwin Lutyens & Noel Ackroyd Rew

Casualty Details: UK 5183; Canada 105; Australia 513; New Zealand 121; Total Burials: 5922






5998 Private

Henry William Compow

3rd Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

20/09/1917, aged 23.

Son of Henry and Jane Kongpow, of Lake View, Killarney, Queensland. Born at Gundagai, New South Wales.

Plot II. H. 16/17





6763 Private

Sidney John Liddell

29th Bn. Australian Infantry,

A. I. F.

26/09/1917, aged 29.

Son of William and Margaret Liddell; husband of Mary K. Liddell, of 168, Sydenham Rd., Marrickville, New South Wales.

Plot XII. F. 9.


Picture courtesy of granddaughter, Lyn Langley



The British Cemetery at Hooge, date unknown. Note the soldiers on the right of the image digging graves

IWM (Q 17847)


This sign was collected by 1689 Sergeant Walter Ernest Brown VC, DCM, 5917 Private William Horatio Thomas Henry Wise and 54453 Private Bailey Horace Kent, all of the 20th Battalion for a proposed 20 Battalion museum. Instead the sign was donated by them in March 1919 to the Australian War Records Section for the National Museum being developed.

Hooge and the Birr X roads (also known as Birr Cross Roads) are located to the east of Ypres and north east of Zillebeke in Belgium. In 1917, the 20th Battalion fought near Ypres in the Battle of Menin Road in September 1917. From Westhoek Ridge they attacked Hannabeek (Hanabeek) Wood, north east of Westhoek, capturing and holding their objective against two counter attacks. They were relieved by the 19th Battalion on the night of 21 September.



4825 Private

Sydney Edmond Ellis

4th Coy. Australian Machine Gun Corps

22/10/1917, aged 28.

Son of John and Jane Ellis; husband of Zilla Ellis, of Heaslop St., Woollengabba, Queensland. Born at Collingwood, Victoria.

Plot XVIII. C. 3.

The above picture was taken in 1917 and shows Sydney with his sons Sydney Reginald and Arthur Irwin Ellis. Prior to enlistment he was a fruiterer. His wife, Zilla, gave birth to a daughter, Irene May Ellis after he had embarked for Europe.





18444 Private

Michael Herbert

2nd Bn. East Lancashire Regiment

31/07/1917, aged 35.

Son of John and Catherine Herbert, of Burnley, England; husband of Ellen Herbert, of 84, Summer St., Ponsonby, Auckland, New Zealand. Formerly of 14 Lancaster Street, Burnley.

Plot V. A. 9.








Second Lieutenant

Alexander Howard Parker Fyfe

8th Coy. Australian Machine Gun Corps

26/09/1917, aged 24.

Son of Alexander Parker Fyfe, and Marion Fyfe, of Albert St., Claremont, Western Australia. Born at Middle Park, Victoria.

Plot IV. E. 9.


Original graves in Hooge Crater Cemetery, including centre left of Richmond Boyd Graham (below)


2647 Private

Richmond Boyd Graham

29th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

Between 26/09/1917 and 27/09/1917, aged 22.

Son of Sidney James Loyd Graham and Harriet Sarah Graham, of "St. Chado," Bridge St., Sandringham, Victoria, Australia. Born at Perth.

Plot XI. K. 15.



8654 Private

James Daynes

8th Bn. Yorkshire Regiment

18/10/1917, aged 29.

Plot IV. G. 6.

I was told by my Grandmother, Eva Whittaker, nee Daynes, that James was acting as a stretcher bearer at the time of his death,

recovering the wounded from "no man's land" when he was shot by a German sniper... he died instantly of his wound."

His family had a memorial silk bookmark made with the following dedication:

"There on the field of battle
He bravely took his place.
He fought and died for England
And the honour of his race.

He sleeps not in his native land
But 'neath the foreign skies
Far from those who loved him best
In a hero's grave he lies.

Deeply mourned by his mother, sister, and brothers.


Picture courtesy of great nephew, Steve Sinton



A scene on the Menin Road near Hooge, looking towards Birr Cross Roads, during the battle on 20 September 1917. The wounded on the stretchers are waiting to be taken to the clearing stations; others able to walk are making their way along the road as far as possible. Identified are: Major (Maj) G A M Heydon MC, Regimental Medical Officer of the 8th Battalion (fifth from the left with his arm in a sling). To his left is Private W Bain and next to him is Private (Pte) 'Spud' Murphy. To Pte Murphy's left (wearing a pack) is 58 Lance Corporal (LCpl) Roy Arthur Findlay MM, all are members of the 1st Field Ambulance. Shortly after the photograph was taken a shell landed in approximately the area where Maj Heydon and Pte Murphy had been standing. The shell killed most of the wounded on stretchers and LCpl Findlay was blown under the truck, shown lying on its side to the right.










484 Private

William Robert Peach

24th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

21/09/1917, aged 38.

Son of Jessie Peach, of Stawell Rd., Horsham, Victoria, Australia, and the late John Peach.

Plot VI. C. 8.





Ruins of Hooge Village, Note the sign board.

IWM (Q 17846)



3428 Private

Frank Monaghan

2nd Bn. Northumberland Fusiliers

22/02/1915, aged 23.

La Chapelle Farm Special Memorial 13.

Killed at La Chapelle Farm at Ypres (Hill 60). Born 30th April 1891 at 10 Dunn Street Jarrow Son of William Monaghan of 46 Lord Street Jarrow, and the late Catherine Monaghan (Casey)

Commemorated at Hooge Crater Cemetery West Vlaanderen, Ypres, Belgium On Special Memorial 13 to those who died at La Chapelle Farm

Frank was a regular soldier and had enlisted aged 21 in Jarrow June/July 1912. On 22nd February 1915 after four days of heavy fighting near Verbrandenmolen, Belgium. Frank was mortally wounded and died shortly after from his wounds.

Out of nearly 50 men killed from the 2nd battalion Northumberland Fusiliers during the four days fighting, Frank was the only one who was buried at La Chapelle Farm. All of the rest were lost without trace and are commemorated on the Menin Gate

He was buried at La Chapelle farm with a wooden cross as a marker. Buried alongside Frank were 12 other men, 10 from the 1st Lincolnshires, 2 from the 1st Dorsetshires and one from the 1st Bedfordshires. During the following years the little wooden crosses in the cemetery were pounded by shellfire and by the end of the war there was no trace of any graves, After the war the Commonwealth Graves Commission made a Special Memorial to those buried and lost at La Chapelle Farm at Hooge Crater Cemetery just a few kilometres.

Frank had served in the Royal Navy prior to WW1 (hence the photograph of him in Naval uniform which was taken 1910-11 and which is the only surviving photograph of him). He was dishonourably discharged from the Royal Navy 5th August 1911 for striking a non commissioned officer. The photograph was taken between 10th March 1910 to 5th August 1911 when he served on HMS Monmouth a Battle Cruiser built in 1903. Ironically it was sunk by the Nurnberg at the Battle of Coronel in the Falklands on the 1st of November 1914 with the loss of all hands.

Picture courtesy of Vin Mullen


Second Lieutenant

Herbert William Barnett

26th Bn. Royal Fusiliers.


Plot VIA. J. 12.



Private 49855

John Ulrich Moss

1st/7th Bn. King's (Liverpool) Regiment.


Plot XII. B. 8.

Picture courtesy of John Garlington



Jack Darbyshire

2nd Field Coy. Australian Engineers

20/09/1917, aged 23.

Son of John Irwin Darbyshire and M. Katrina Darbyshire, of Port Augusta, South Australia. Born at New South Wales.

Plot III. A. 11.



7768 Private

James Hoy McClenaghan

15th Field Ambulance,

Australian Army Medical Corps

25/09/1917, aged 27.

Son of William John and Elizabeth McClenaghan. Native of Sydney, New South Wales.

Plot II. DD. 17.


Australian soldiers with supplies and stretchers passing the crater at Hooge (foreground), in the Ypres sector, on their way to the front line during the attack of the 1st Division on 20 September 1917. Note the discarded duckboards in the foreground.








Alexander Henderson Miller

57th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

25/09/1917, aged 32.

Son of Alexander and Marian Miller; husband of Belle Miller, of "Wooragee," 28, Clendon Rd., Toorak, Victoria, Australia. Native of Berwick, Victoria.

Plot XIII. J. 10.



(20th September 1917) A group of German prisoners assisting to bring in Australian wounded near Hooge.

 Note that many of the prisoners are still wearing their packs and water bottles.


3851 Private

Ernest Edward Harridge

5th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.


Son of Albert Fulford Harridge and Sarah Ester Harridge. Born at Kerang, Victoria, Australia.

Plot IXA. G. 15.




6060 Private

Frank Albert Coleman

22nd Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

18/09/1917, aged 22.

Son of Arthur Job and Emily Annie Coleman. Born at Smithfield, New South Wales.

Plot VI. E. 14/15.



4307 Sapper

Sydney Sowter

13th Field Coy. Australian Engineers

12/10/1917, aged 25.

Son of Thomas and Margaret Sowter; husband of Linda May Overall Sowter, of Onslow St., Granville, New South Wales.

Plot XVI. D. 19.




2506 Private

Robert Millan Johnstone

1st Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.


Plot I. B. 5.


Hooge Crater Cemetery, pictured from Maple Copse



2446 Lance Corporal

Leslie Lewis Thomas

58th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

25/09/1917, aged 21.

Son of Mary Thomas, of 427, Armstrong St. South, Ballarat West, Victoria, Australia, and the late William Thomas. Native of Ballarat, Victoria.

Plot XII. G. 2.



6572 Private

Stanley Charles Reed

11th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

21/09/1917, aged 21.

Son of William James and Mary Jane Reed, of 16, Frank St., Boulder, Western Australia. Native of Broken Hill, New South Wales.

Plot VI. H. 7.




Original graves in the Hooge Crater Cemetery







3830 Private

Louis Stanley Kendall

30th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

23/10/1917, aged 39.

Son of Thomas Robert and Margaret Ann Kendall; husband of Ruby Millicent Kendall, of "Wingello," Kiama, New South Wales. Born at Milton, New South Wales.

Plot XVIII. C. 1.


Louis enlisted in 1916 after his son was turned down on medical grounds.


Just inside the entrance, this area was designed to symbolise the crater






Chaplain 4th Class

The Rev. David De Venny Hunter

Australian Army Chaplains Department attd. 55th Bn Australian Infantry, A.I.F.

28/09/1917, aged 41.

Son of George and Jane Hunter (nee De Venny); husband of Marion Hunter, of "Girrawheen," Pyrmont St., Ashfield, New South Wales. Born in Ireland.

Plot II. F. 16.


17148 Gunner

Myrtle James Healy

10th Bde. Australian Field Artillery


Son of James and Annie Healy, of The Retreat, Smithfield, New South Wales.

Plot XIV. A. 7.



142 Private

John James Beckham

6th Bn. Australian Light Trench Mortar Battery


Son of William and Johanna Louisa Beckham. Born at Birchip, Victoria, Australia.

Plot XIX. L. 17.